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樸門永續設計2009年七月讀書會:微氣候/Permaculture Study Group June 2009: Microclimates
 
2016-07-27
 
孟磊 (Peter Morehead)
 
 

感謝凱西和玉華帶領的樸門讀書會,這一天的主題是氣候與微氣候,在Earth Users' Guide to Permaculture一書中(Rosemary Morrow著),談到關於降雨、土壤、建築、植被及坡度如何影響一地微氣候的種種因素。要瞭解一地之微氣候,可以嘗試一個很好的練習,你可以選擇某一天的不同時刻,閉上眼睛在你的土地上走一圈,深入感受那裡的冷熱、濕度、風向、亮度、太陽的方向與角度,以及周遭的植被等。當你閉上眼讓人帶領繞行你的土地時(請小心腳步!),依憑著周遭的微氣候,你就能夠知道樹木在哪裡,也可以感受到地面上的濕氣。這些感受都將協助你選擇最適合種植於此的植物,也能幫助你想像這些樹木在十年後將營造怎樣的微氣候。

Thanks to Kathy and Yuhua for leading yesterday’s permaculture study group! The topic was climate and microclimates, and the book (Earth User’s Guide to Permaculture, Rosemary Morrow) talked about how precipitation, soil, structures, vegetation and slope have different effects on local microclimates. When getting to know your local microclimates, a good exercise is to walk around the site at different times of the day and often close your eyes to get a good feel of coolness, moisture, wind, light, sun angle, slope and nearby vegetation. When you close your eyes and have someone lead you around the land (carefully!), you can feel where trees are just by the microclimates they produce. You can also feel the amount of moisture in the ground. This helps in designing which plants are most suitable for an area, and helps you think into the future about the microclimates produced in 10 years by trees you grow now.

Rosemary Morrow的書中也提到應用植物所創造的微氣候進一步協助其他植物生長的方法。關於這點,我想要分享最近在台東家院子裡所得到的經驗。當我們二月份租下這間房子時,院子裡除了石頭和砂土外,可說是什麼也沒有。由於缺乏植被,也沒有任何東西屏蔽從太陽,以及從地面、建築物、圍牆反射來的輻射熱,院子裡的微氣候真的非常非常地乾燥,在房子的任何一個角落都很悶熱,我都只能以「不宜人居」來形容。要改善如此環境的第一步,我想應該為房子多增加些遮蔭,並盡量從土地上獲取濕氣,我發現,雜草其實非常擅長這項工作。

Rosemary Morrow’s book mentioned a strategy for using plants to create microclimates that assist other plants to get started. I can share a recent experience of this on our yard in Taidong. When we rented the house in February, the yard was completely bare – only rocks and sand. This produced a very dry microclimate and because there was no vegetation, there was nothing to block radiation from the ground, the building, the garden walls and the sun. It was easy to feel this radiant heat from all sides, and I can only describe the feeling as “inhospitable.” The first step was to get shade and moisture in the ground and I found weeds to be the best at doing this job.


「什麼也不做」策略/A Do Nothing Strategy

因為平常都被綁在台北,我的第一個策略很不得已的只能是「什麼也不做」,不過雜草們還滿喜歡這個策略的,它們很成功地霸佔了所有空間,將全部地面都覆上了一層植被,抵擋住陽光的強力照射進而將下了院子裡的溫度。這些雜草創造了一種很有助益的微氣候。

雖然這個策略看起來好像是個懶人作法,但其實什麼也不做還滿困難的。我的房東一直問我是不是要灑灑除草劑剷除這些雜草,我的朋友鄰居不斷地說這些難看的雜草讓院子看起來好像一塊荒地,如果「現在」不好好處理以後會衍生很多問題,有個鄰居甚至興奮地想要從我手上奪刀示範怎樣除草!所以「什麼也不做」策略的主要問題其實是社會與文化性質的。除此之外,這是我所知道可以加速演替,創造一個繁榮的可食生態系統的最好方式。

Often stuck far away in Taipei, my first strategy was naturally to do nothing. The weeds very much enjoyed this strategy. They did a wonderful job at filling all spaces and providing a vegetative ground cover. This greatly cooled down the yard and reduced the sun’s glare. The weeds created a microclimate – a very beneficial microclimate. Although it may seem like a lazy thing to do, it wasn’t easy to “do nothing.” My landlord continually asked me if she could spray herbicides to fight the weeds. My friends and neighbors said it looked like a wasteland with all those unsightly weeds and said I would have lots of problems down the road if I didn’t “take care of” them now. One neighbor got so excited that she wanted to take my culling knife out of my hands and show me how to cut the weeds down! So the main problem with this strategy is socio-cultural. Apart from that, it is the best strategy I know of to accelerate succession and create a thriving edible ecosystem.

雜草可以提供下列幾項好處:

  1. 食物:大部分的雜草都可以吃,像龍葵、咸豐草、昭和草、野莧菜等等,這些野菜比起其他我種的菜都更快收成,也不需要任何照顧。
  2. 提供土壤遮蔭。
  3. 減少土壤中的水份蒸發。
  4. 增加濕度。
  5. 營造較涼爽的環境。
  6. 收集陽光,以利減少陽光反射(避免「浪費」陽光),吸收空氣中的碳,為土壤增加有機質
  7. 為掠食動物提供棲地
  8. 為剛開始營造的院子創造有機覆蓋物

Here are some of the benefits that these weeds offered:

  1. Food – most of the weeds were edible. This food came faster than anything I could have planted and did not require any tending.
  2. Shading of the soil
  3. Reduced evaporation of soil moisture
  4. Increased humidity
  5. Cooler environment
  6. Capturing of sunlight to: reduce reflection (wasted sunlight), take carbon out of the air, put organic matter into the soil
  7. Create habitat for predators
  8. Create organic matter to use as mulch for starting gardens

其他策略/The Rest of My Strategy

雜草是我「什麼也不做」策略的基礎,因為它們提供了太多好處。每次去台東我都只擴充了大約幾平方公尺的菜園,還沒有特別照顧到的部份,就任憑雜草繁茂生長,我很尊敬它們為我做的所有工作。無論地上地下,它們都將我的院子轉變成一個充滿生命的空間。

唯一我會連根拔除了是蒺藜草,因為它長滿棘刺的種子碰到很痛;唯一我會阻止繁衍的是咸豐草(為什麼?),每次我剛抵達台東和離開前都會摘下它們的花。這兩項工作每個月大概只花我十分鐘,其他策略就是逐漸蒐集營造菜園所需要的材料,例如廚餘、厚紙板、覆蓋物,以及外移的土壤等。我只會在擴充菜園面積時才會除去雜草,而且隨即會依序撲上廚餘、紙板、覆蓋物和土壤,很快就能在我的雜草朋友的繁榮世界旁邊創造一個菜園,前文已經說明過這個菜園前期雜草生態系統的優點。這個雜草生態系最終還是會被可食植物所取代,不過如果它們又長回來了也不必發瘋,因為雜草總是會好好地做好它們的工作,也很容易管理。雜草真是我的好朋友!

我和玉子在割下來的草上鋪上覆蓋物,擴大我們的菜園。
pic: Yuzi and I extending the garden with mulch on top of cut weeds.


The weeds were an essential part of my “do nothing” strategy, because they provided so much (see above). Every time I go to Taidong, I expand the garden by a few more square meters. In spaces where I haven’t yet expanded my garden, I continue to let the weeds thrive and I greatly respect the job they are doing for me. They are turning my yard into a livable space, both above and below ground. The only weed that I pull out by the roots is JILI, which produces a painful hitchhiking seed. The only weed that I don’t let germinate is 咸豐草, which I deflower by hand once upon my arrival to Taidong, and once upon my departure. This pulling and deflowering takes about 10 minutes per month. The rest of my strategy is to gradually gather all the materials I need for expanding the garden (kitchen scraps, cardboard, mulch, transplant soil), and all at once cut down the weeds only as far as I need to expand the garden, and put down the kitchen scraps, cardboard, mulch and transplant soil (in that order). The result: an instant garden right next to a thriving ecosystem created by my weed friends. The benefits of this pre-established ecosystem are stated above. Eventually, the weeds will be replaced mostly by food plants, but there’s no need to freak out when some of them come back because they are always doing a good job for me (see above benefits) and they are easy to manage. Weeds are my friends!!!

更多關於微氣候/More on Microclimates

植物是微氣候最好的創造者,如果擁有足夠的空間與時間,植物,特別是樹木,擁有大幅改變地貌及氣候的驚人能力。前文中,我已經分享了如何讓雜草為我的菜園創造一個良好微氣候與生態系,下面則繼續和大家分享如何利用微氣候幫助我的日常生活:

I think that plants are the best creators of microclimates. Plants, and especially trees, have amazing qualities to greatly alter the landscape and climate… if we let them. Above, I have shared one way that I allow weeds to create a beneficial microclimate and ecosystem for my garden. Other ways that I use microclimates in my everyday life:

  1. 台北的屋頂農園:不將所有盆栽植物四處散佈,而是集中擺放創造一個有遮蔭的微氣候,擺放地點規劃在儲水桶的背風處,可提供一個避風、涼爽與遮蔭的環境。這樣的方法加上使用大型植栽盆,比起我的鄰居每天澆兩次水,我大約只要每四天澆一次就可以了。這一點對我很重要,因為我只使用屋頂上收集在儲水桶裡的雨水來澆水。

    Rooftop garden in Taipei: Rather than dispersing my potted plants all over the roof, I cluster them together to create shaded microclimates. These clusters are located on the non-windy side of existing water tanks, which provide wind protection, coolth, and shade. By using this strategy, coupled with large planting containers, I only have to water my plants once every 4 days, compared to some of my neighbors who water twice per day. This is extremely important for me because the only water I can use on my roof is rainwater collected in tanks.

     
  2. 太陽能鍋:太陽能鍋是創造微氣候的一個最佳例證,它使用所有微氣候的相關知識創造一個超級熱的小空間,熱到能夠烹煮食物!太陽能鍋的秘密主要在於「顏色」:銀色(可有效反光的顏色)、黑色,和透明。只要簡單地將這些顏色安排在正確的位置上,即可以利用陽光煮食。透明的部分安排在頂部,可以讓陽光穿透又防止熱能散逸;銀色具有反射功能,可以導引陽光加熱鍋子;黑色則能盡量地吸收陽光。同樣的顏色原理亦可用在擁有池塘(具反射能力)或深色葉子植物(吸收陽光並為環境降溫)的庭園設計上。

    Solar cooker: A solar cooker is an excellent example of creating a microclimate. It uses all the knowledge of microclimates to create one spot that is super-hot – hot enough to cook food! The main secret is in the colors: transparent, reflective, and black. Solar cooking simply means aligning these three colors in the correct position (transparent on top to let light in and prevent heat from escaping, reflective on the sides to direct more light to the pot, and black pot to absorb as much sunlight as possible. The same color principles can be used in the garden with ponds (reflective) or dark-leaved plants (absorb heat and cool down environment).

    屋頂上的水塔是很有用的微氣候調節者,可以提供涼爽遮蔭與防風功能。

    pic: a rooftop water tank is a useful microclimate modifier, providing coolth, shade, and wind protection.


    你需要創造一個非常極端的微氣候才能製造太陽能鍋,因此太陽能鍋可以是解說微氣候一個很好的教具。
    pic:
    making a solar cooker requires you to create the most extreme microclimate possible – in this respect it is a very useful teaching tool.
     
  3. 冬天時在陽台上放置反光板,將室外光線反射進入較為陰暗的室內,如此所創造的微氣候不但減少了能源使用,更為室內帶進更多溫暖。

    Reflective panels on my balcony to allow more light in my house in winter. This creates a microclimate indoors that reduces energy use (lighting) and creates a warm living environment.


    上圖:左圖是我們家客廳平常的採光,右圖是在陽台放置反光板之後的採光。

    pics: our livingroom before and after setting up reflective panel on balcony.
     
  4. 池塘:世界上所有最健康也最富多樣性的生態系,都擁有一些活水來源。水,能夠吸引許多有益的昆蟲、兩棲類、爬蟲類、鳥兒及哺乳類動物,它們全部都可以幫忙菜園裡的工作。水也能夠創造一個非常關鍵的在地微氣候,提供反射的光線、濕氣,並調節氣溫,因此每個菜園裡如果能夠有一個小水池都是非常有好處的。我最喜歡且很快就能建造起來的是輪胎池,它只需要一個輪胎為壁,一層防水布為底,接著在底部和輪胎邊邊填充一些泥土,為不同的水生植物營造不同的深度。我曾經看過僅僅放置一個接雨水用的儲水桶,就成為一個複雜生態系形成的開端,有許多次我發現放好儲水桶一天後,蜘蛛就突然出現開始結網築巢了。蜘蛛是一種很好的生物指標,因為牠們位於昆蟲食物鏈的最頂端,是營造菜園時一個很好的朋友。


    圖:平等里約有兩年的輪胎池;台東的輪胎池工程;蜘蛛在一天後就移居到雨水儲水桶了。

    pics: 2-year old tyre pond at Pingdengli; construction of tyre pond in Taidong; spider immigration one day after installing rainwater barrel.

    Ponds: All of the world’s healthiest and most diverse ecosystems have some source of standing water. Water attracts many beneficial insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of whom can help with garden work. Water also creates significant local microclimates, providing reflected light, humidity and moderated temperatures. It is therefore very useful to include a small body of water in every garden design. My favorite quick pond is a tyre-pond, which requires a tyre as a retaining wall, and a water-proof lining. Soil can be added to the bottom and the rim of the tyre to create different levels for different water plants. I have witnessed that just one simple step of placing a container to catch rainwater triggers the beginning of a complex ecosystem. On several occasions I have found that just one day after setting out a rainwater barrel, spiders promptly arrive and begin setting up webs above the barrel. Spiders are a good indicator of life as they are on the top of the insect food chain. They are very good friends to have in the garden.
     
  5. 微氣候也是購買土地時一個決定性的關鍵。十多年前我開始持續存錢來購買土地,我們看地看了好多年,直到遇見我們今天買的地,沒有一塊地像這塊一樣在我心裡留下強烈的印象。我們幾乎是當下就決定要購買,其中四成吸引我的原因是原地主當時所創造的自然微氣候。這塊地原來就避風面陽,以一道拋物線的圓弧面對太陽。圓弧是大自然中常見的模式,花朵常常可見圓弧線條(也是太陽能鍋的模式),這樣的花朵在圓弧的焦點處創造了獨特且異常微小的微氣候來加速生長。房屋經常設計座落於避風面陽處,就能夠避免強風的吹襲(冬天尤其常從沒有陽光的方向吹來),並在冬天收集最多溫暖的陽光。避風面陽處因此成為調節在地氣候的關鍵,特別是在未來的氣候將變得極不穩定時。所以這一塊罕見的自然的避風面陽處,就成為我選擇購買這塊地的主要原因。不過當然仍有其他方式可以創造一個避風且面陽的環境,例如透過土木工程、建築構造(三合院是一個傳統但絕佳的例子)、或樹的種植等等。當我在設計一個場域時,我所秉持的基本想法就是依循其特質創造可作為主要活動場地(如蓋屋、娛樂、食物生產等)的避風面陽處。


    我們在台東的地有著避風面陽的地形

    pic: suntrap geography of our land in Taidong.

    Microclimate was a decisive factor in deciding on which land to purchase. For over ten years, I had been saving up enough money to purchase land. Over the years, we looked at sites and nothing stuck so readily in my mind as the piece of land we now have, it was pretty much an instant decision with 40% of its attraction being the natural microclimate provided by landforms. It is a natural suntrap. A suntrap—a parabola facing the sun—is a pattern often found in nature, especially in flowers (also like a solar cooker). Such flowers create unique and very micro microclimates to facilitate regenerative processes that take place at the focus of the parabola. Houses or other activities placed in a suntrap enjoy protection from the wind (which usually comes from the non-sun direction in winter), and collect a maximum amount of winter sun and a reduced amount of summer sun. Suntraps therefore are good at modifying local climates. This could be very useful in future years of climate instability. This was therefore one of the primary factors that led me to choose my current site, which happens to be a natural suntrap (a natural landform suntrap is not a common thing!). Of course there are other ways to produce suntraps, for example, through earthworks, structures (三合院 is a great traditional example) or tree-plantings. One thought that runs through my mind when designing any site is to explore its amenability to creating suntraps for primary activities (housing, recreation, food processing, etc).

學生職業代碼 http://on-night.com/taizhongjiaoxiaojie http://on-night.com/zhanghuayuanjiao 台南0.5s http://www.spsc.com.tw/help.asp 台中住宿 台南個工 竹北養生 高雄一夜情 台中妹島 草屯外約 http://duongthan.vn/function.php 七期汽車旅館 http://hangnhatviolet.com/Global.asp 台中頂級motel

我選擇這塊土地的其他重要原因還包括個人健康的因素(我在台灣北部及中部常犯氣喘)、到鄰近村落的便利性(經濟社會環境)、友善體力的地形(沒有山丘)、價格,以及與海的距離等等,不過個人健康和鄰近村落的距離是最主要的考量。最後我仍要強調:樸門永續設計的原則與策略幾乎可以將所有土地營造成具生產力又宜人居的地方!

Just to let readers know, other important factors that led me to choose this site were personal health reasons (chronic asthma in Northern and Western Taiwan), proximity to villages and access routes (economic/social livelihood), human-power friendly landscape (no hills), price, and distance from rising ocean. Personal health and social livelihood were predominant factors for choosing this site. It is important to stress here that permaculture principles and strategies can make almost any piece of land productive and livable!

 
 
   
 
  地址:116台北市汀州路四段105巷10號1樓